Bad Breath Causes & Treatments

Bad Breath Causes & Treatments 

There are a number of causes of bad breath, foremost among them being bacteria in the mouth, stomach and intestinal disturbances, bowel sluggishness, sinus or throat infections, and tobacco and alcohol use.


 Alcohol consumption causes digestive problems which leads to bad breath. In addition, alcohol dries out the mouth, which reduces saliva production.


Stress is another cause which may not be readily apparent when you are looking for reasons for bad breath. Stress affects the digestive system. An insufficient supply of digestive enzymes may be another cause.

Bad Breath

Other sources of bad breath are in the nose and the nasopharynx, the area above the base of your tongue.


Dieting may be a cause of bad breath.


Since dehydration leads to constipation and digestive problems, it is very beneficial to drink 6-8 eight ounce glasses of water a day. Juice, coffee, tea, colas, etc. don’t count!

Tonsils Infection

Bad breath may emanate from the back of the throat due to sinus or tonsil infections resulting in excess bacteria. If you have sinus or throat problems you may well have some form of allergy.

Other Diseases

Other diseases may also be responsible of bad breath such as  diabetes, duodenal ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux, hypoglycemia, kidney or liver malfunction, and respiratory disorders.

The Foods

The foods eaten also are a potential cause of halitosis. Certain foods, such as garlic, onions and certain spices are frequently cited as cause for a person’s bad breath. Both vegetarians and those who eat large quantities of meat may develop bad breath due, in part, to the digestive process. Digestion begins in the mouth. Saliva has enzymes which begin the digestion process, and the type of food eaten can affect the food chemistry of the mouth. Saliva will also pick up odors from food within several hours after it has been eaten. Odors are strongest from carbohydrates – sugars, starches and cellulose, less strong from proteins, and nonexistent from fats. Bacteria in the mouth react with the decaying food and drink residue and can be the source of the foul odor.

Milk  intolerance often is the cause of bad breath. Eliminate all dairy products and see if they are the culprit.

 • The stomach also is an area that causes bad breath problems for many people. Poor digestion, constipation, or bowel disorders may create gas which exits the mouth. Not enough hydrochloric acid in the stomach may cause poor digestion, so undigested food will pass into the intestines, putrefy and give off foul gas which rises up and causes bad breath. This problem is quite common with older people whose body does not produce enough hydrochloric acid naturally to aid the digestion process.
Another common digestive problem is due to the imbalance of good and bad bacteria in the gut. Food won’t be digested properly and the result can be acid reflux, yeast overgrowth, or fermentation. One of the byproducts of this problem is bad breath. To correct this imbalance, use a probity.

Diarrhea caused by intestinal parasites is the third leading cause of illness. If you have a number of the following symptoms: gas, diarrhea, chronic constipation, bloating, fatigue, skin rashes, nail biting, mood swings, insomnia, dry skin, brittle hair, hair loss, weight gain, bad breath, and muscle cramping, you should be tested for parasites.

 • Dental problems, especially periodontal disease and tooth abscesses, are often the cause of bad breath. These infected areas harbor large quantities of bacteria from the infection and foods eaten which have been allowed to putrefy. Other dental sources are gaps between teeth or crooked teeth, both areas where food can be left to decay. Vitamin deficiencies, especially vitamin C and niacin, are the cause of some gum diseases, so follow the supplementation recommendations listed below. Don’t chew gum or eat candy, as the sugar can leave a residue that promotes rapid bacterial growth. Each person’s body chemistry is different, so what works for somebody may have no effect on somebody else, all due to that person’s chemistry. See our gingivitis/periodontal section for more information on dental problems.

Physical Fitness For Diabetes Patients

 Physical Fitness For Diabetes Patients

Almost everyone, whether or not they have diabetes, will benefit from exercise. But regular exercise also has special advantages for people with type 1 and 2 diabetes and is an important part of their treatment plan.

Type 1 diabetes

As people with type 1 diabetes know, many factors influence blood glucose levels. While exercise has been shown to improve blood glucose management in people with type 2 diabetes, the story is more complicated with type 1 diabetes. In people with type 1 diabetes, blood glucose levels vary considerably depending on the type of activity, duration, intensity of activity, as well as the amount and timing of insulin administration and carbohydrate intake. Low- to moderate-intensity exercise lowers blood glucose levels both during and after the activity, increasing the risk of hypoglycemia. In contrast, high-intensity exercise raises blood glucose levels during and immediately after the activity. The stress of competition and even heat can also affect the delicate balance between glucose and insulin. These effects on blood glucose levels can be addressed by carefully matching carbohydrate intake to insulin and planning the type and timing of exercise. Self-monitoring of blood glucose before, during and, especially, for many hours after exercise is critical for establishing how your body responds to exercise. This information will help you make the right adjustments to exercise, medication or carbohydrate intake to avoid high or low blood glucose.

Type 2 diabetes

Almost everyone, whether or not they have diabetes, will benefit from exercise. But regular exercise also has special advantages for people with type 2 diabetes and is an important part of their treatment plan. A key feature of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance — the body’s inability to respond properly to the actions of insulin.
Specifically, glucose builds up in the bloodstream. Glucose is the body’s fuel, and muscles need this fuel to work. When we exercise, our muscles’ demand for fuel increases. The liver responds to this demand by releasing some of its glycogen stores, which are broken down into glucose that our muscles can use. As we continue to exercise, our muscles use up the available glucose in the blood and eventually the glycogen stores in the liver become depleted. At this point, the body looks for another source of fuel and starts burning fat to supply the muscles with the needed energy. Exercising muscles also appear to be able to use glucose more efficiently. Studies have even shown that previously exercised muscles are able to take up glucose more quickly over the next few days. This is why regular exercise is so important.

Some advice before taking that first step :

With so many good reasons to be physically active, it’s time to get started! However, if you have been inactive for some time and want to start begin an exercise program that is more strenuous than brisk walking, you should first see your doctor. He or she will want to ensure that you don’t have any conditions or complications that might be aggravated by exercise. It you are at high risk of heart disease, you may undergo a stress test (a test to determine how well your heart handles work). This test monitors your heart rate while you walk on a treadmill. If you have neuropathy (nerve damage), retinopathy (eye disease), very high blood pressure or very high blood glucose your doctor may want you to avoid some kinds of exercise or take special precautions. While a thorough physical exam is important, for most people the risks of not exercising are far greater than any risks associated with becoming more active.

What kinds of exercise are best?

Both aerobic and resistance exercise are important for people with diabetes. Aerobic exercise (such as walking, running, swimming, dancing, hockey, skiing) works your heart and lungs and carries oxygen to your muscles, while resistance exercise builds muscle. Resistance exercises (such as weight training) increase muscle strength and complement the benefits of aerobic exercise. If you decide to begin resistance exercise, you should get some instruction by a qualified exercise specialist. You should start with low weights and one set of 10 to 15 repetitions. The goal is to build up to 3 sets of 8 repetitions with the highest weight that can be lifted three times per week.

Tips for safe exercising :

Once you get the green light from your doctor, take a few common-sense steps to ensure you get the most out of your work-outs and minimize the risks of getting injured :-

  • Make sure you have the right shoes. This is so important for people with diabetes. Buy your shoes from a reputable store with knowledgeable staff that can ensure a proper fit. Buy the right shoes for your activity (e.g. tennis shoes for tennis, walking shoes for walking, and pool shoes for swimming).
  • Dress appropriately for the weather.
  • Wear your medical alert bracelet or necklace.
  • Listen to your body. While exercising will probably cause some muscle fatigue or even slight discomfort, it should not cause pain. Speak to your doctor if you are very short of breath or have chest pain.
  • Plan your exercise sessions so you can take the appropriate measures to exercise safely. Decide on the timing, type, duration and intensity of exercise.

Every person with type 1 diabetes will have a different response to exercise. The only accurate way to determine your response is frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose. Monitor glucose before, during, and many hours after to see how the activity has affected your blood glucose.
If your pre-meal blood glucose level is >14.0 mmol/L and urine ketone level is >8.0 mmol/L or blood ketone level is >3.0 mmol/L, exercise should not be performed as it could cause high blood glucose and more ketone production. Wait until your blood glucose is back in the normal range before exercising.
Estimate how much carbohydrate and insulin you need to keep your blood glucose levels stable. You may need to work with your healthcare team to learn how to do this. A general rule of thumb for most moderate-intensity exercise is 15 to 30 g of carbohydrate every 30 to 60 minutes of exercise.
Avoid injecting insulin into the body part that will be exercising.
If you use an insulin pump, see your healthcare team for more information on how to calculate carbohydrate intake and to adjust the basal and bolus components of your insulin dosage.
Monitor your blood glucose every 30 minutes during and for many hours after (including overnight if necessary) exercising and record the results.

  • Keep some form of fast-acting carbohydrate with you at all times in case you need to treat a low blood glucose.
  • Drink enough water to stay well hydrated while exercising.
  • People who exercise vigorously or who train for competition should work closely with their healthcare team.

The importance of monitoring your blood glucose levels :

Because exercising lowers blood glucose, there is an increased risk of hypoglycemia if you take insulin or certain diabetes pills. It is important to ask your doctor about preventing, detecting and treating hypoglycemia. When you first start a new exercise program, you should monitor glucose before, during and many hours afterward to see how the activity has affected your blood glucose. Be sure to carry some form of fast-acting carbohydrate with you in case you need to treat low blood glucose.

How much exercise is enough?

According to the Canadian Diabetes Association 2003 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada, people with type 2 diabetes should do at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise each week, spread over at least 3 nonconsecutive days. The goal is to build up to 4 or more hours of exercise per week. Does this sound like a lot of exercise? Think about how much time you spend in front of the television or computer and decide whether some of this time would be better spent getting fit.You may have to start slowly, with as little as 5 to 10 minutes of exercise per day, and gradually build up to your goal. The good news, though, is that multiple, shorter exercise sessions lasting at least 10 minutes each are probably as useful as a single longer session of the same intensity.

Staying motivated:

In order to benefit from physical activity, it has to become a part of your life and routine. Habits can be hard to change, so be prepared with a plan in case your motivation starts to fade. Here are tips for staying motivated.

Do something you like! It is hard to stick to an activity that is not fun. There are so many ways to stay active. It may take you a few tries before you find the activity that is right for you.
Have a support network. Some people like to exercise alone, but still need a little push to get off the couch. Ask your family, friends and co-workers to help you stayed motivated. Some people find it very motivating to exercise with other people. Whether it’s a scheduled walk with a friend, or a group of people from a gym or community, try to find a structure and schedule that you will keep you involved and interested.
Set small, attainable goals and celebrate when you reach them. Reward yourself in healthy ways.
If you find it hard to stay motivated, remind yourself of all the health benefits you will enjoy when you are fit. Also, remind yourself of the dangers of not being fit.
Seek out professional help from a gym, personal trainer, or someone knowledgeable who can help you find a fitness regimen that will work for you.
Many things in our lives are out of our control, so when we have an opportunity to take control and make a difference in our health, we should seize it. The decision to start exercising is example of taking control. The risks of not exercising are high. It is never too late to make a positive change in life. Regardless of your age, making the decision to become more physically fit is one of the greatest gifts you can give yourself and the people who love you. Take that first step today.

The Signs and Symptoms of Pregnancy

“Am I pregnant?” is probably the most common health question women ask. The signs symptoms of early pregnancy are easy to recognize – even more so when this is not your first pregnancy. Whether this is your first, second, or third pregnancy, the signs and symptoms are the same. However during one pregnancy, you may experience incredible breast pain or nausea and vomiting, while during another pregnancy you might not experience these symptoms at all. The simple fact is that each pregnancy, just like each newborn, is different and you can’t count on having the same symptoms or the same intensity of symptoms during consecutive pregnancies

Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms

Fatigue or unusual tiredness

Early pregnancy is time when a woman’s body is working very hard to keep up with the changes that occur. This means increased hormone production, as well as the fact that the heart is pumping harder and faster due to the escalation of blood flow – necessary to bring nutrients to the growing fetus. Increased progesterone production is the primary reason for the extra fatigue most pregnant women experience early in their pregnancy. Another reason for fatigue and unusual tiredness during early pregnancy are the emotional extremes experienced often during pregnancy. It’s not uncommon for a pregnant woman to burst into tears for no apparent reason other than the hormonal rise and fall that occur during this time. This symptom is also a sign to get more sleep before your baby arrives when you’ll need your energy to care for your newborn baby.

Late or missed periods

The most common reason for missing your period is pregnancy and this is often the first sign that makes you suspect pregnancy. Only a pregnancy test followed by a pelvic exam, can tell you positively whether you are pregnant. Once your health care provider rules out pregnancy as the cause of your late or missed periods, the next step is usually to rule in or out several other possible explanations for absence of menstruation.

Light bleeding and/or cramping

The most common reason for light bleeding during early pregnancy is implantation. Implantation bleeding occurs when the fertilized egg implants itself in the uterine lining and usually occurs about 10 to 14 days after conception. Bleeding caused by implantation is very light, often the only sign you might notice that indicates implantation has occurred is a small spot of blood .Cramping that is similar to menstrual cramps occurs very early during pregnancy and happens when the uterus begins to expand to make room for the embryo to develop into a fetus that continues to develop for a total of 40 weeks gestation when your baby is born.

Swollen, tender, or sore breasts

Often this is the first physical sign of pregnancy. In fact, some women know when they are pregnant based on this sign alone. The reason breasts and/ or nipples are often sore, swollen, or tender during early pregnancy is because the breasts are undergoing changes to prepare for breastfeeding. The reason for this is the increased production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone that occurs and the breasts and/ or nipples are often particularly painful during a first pregnancy

Morning sickness

Nausea during pregnancy can occur with or without vomiting. While morning sickness is most common between weeks four and eight during pregnancy, many women experience this symptom beginning about two weeks from their date of conception. Morning sickness is a misnomer since it can, and often does, occur at anytime of the day or night. The most common reason for this symptom seems to be the rapid rise in estrogen, produced by the fetus and placenta. Another trigger for nausea is odors. During pregnancy, a woman’s sense of smell increases considerably and can make almost anything from everyday household odors, foods, perfume, and smoke, to name a few, trigger a bout of morning sickness or nausea and vomiting. The most common foods to cause morning sickness are coffee during the first weeks of pregnancy, meat, dairy products, and spicy foods. However, it’s essential to understand that literally anything can trigger nausea and/ or vomiting during pregnancy. In fact, I personally know someone who became nauseated during one of her pregnancies every time she passed a microwave in operation.

Running to the bathroom

During the first trimester of pregnancy, it’s easy to believe you might have to “move” into your bathroom since it seems you are constantly running to make to the bathroom. The growing uterus causes frequent urination during pregnancy. The first and third trimesters of pregnancy are typically when the most intense frequent urination happens. While the signs and symptoms of early pregnancy listed on the previous page are the most common, other symptoms can, and often do, occur in pregnancy. Other pregnancy symptoms include:


Headaches that occur during pregnancy are often intense and caused by increased hormone levels.

Mood swings

Don’t think you’re crazy if you suddenly develop atypical mood swings or if you are unusually emotional during pregnancy, these are very normal reactions during pregnancy. Many times, pregnant women burst into tears for reasons that are unclear to anyone, including the pregnant woman. Another symptom caused by increased hormone levels.

Feeling weak, faint, or dizzy

Caused by the circulatory system as dilation of the blood vessels occur. Low blood sugar, early in pregnancy, also triggers these symptoms.


Food digests slower than usual during pregnancy due to increased progesterone production. Slower digestion sometimes causes constipation during pregnancy.

If you experience the signs and symptoms of pregnancy, buy a home pregnancy test and see your doctor – either to begin prenatal care and confirm your pregnancy or to determine the cause of your symptoms if you’re not pregnant.

Instruments for self checking of blood suger

Diabetes is a disease that you should not ignore. It is important that you regularly monitor your blood sugar to avoid risks of complications as well as other disorders.

The easiest way is by the presence of sugars in the urine, and certain other symptoms such as prickly eyes and passing large quantities or urine (without having spent the evening in the pub first!). Diabetes is only diagnosed after quite a lot of testing, and this is a medical matter. Once diagnosed, it can be tested by taking a drop of blood and putting it on a testing stick and checking it, or there is a little gadget that does the pricking of the finger and the testing all in one. This indicates the sugar level in the blood, which is quite independent of the pressure.
Some diabetics take insulin, and it is important for them to get the timing right. Too long a gap between the insulin and the meal can cause a drop in blood sugar, which if not corrected can sometimes lead to coma and death. Too high level can cause other problems, but less dangerous in the short term. Continue reading →

Benefits of Exercise for People With Diabetes

Regular exercise is especially important for a person with
diabetes. It helps with blood sugar control, weight loss, and high blood
pressure. People with diabetes who exercise are less likely to experience a heart attack or stroke than diabetics who not exercise regularly, generally helps control blood glucose
levels, Exercise also helps insulin to work better.

Aerobics and anaerobic both types of exercises are
beneficial. while aerobic exercise works to lower blood sugar better, the benefits of anaerobic activities such as weight training are important too. For maximum
benefit, aerobic exercise should be done 3 to 5 minutes a week, for 20-30 minutes each time. If a person taking insulin
then it is easier to balance his blood glucose levels if he exercise at the same time of day.
An important study reported a 58% lower risk for type 2 diabetes in adults who performed moderate exercise for as little as 2.5 hours a week. Others suggest that the risk is reduced in overweight people, even if they don’t lose weight.
Regular aerobic exercise, even of moderate intensity, improves insulin sensitivity.

People with diabetes are at particular risk for heart disease, so the heart protective effects of aerobic exercise are very important for this patient population.
Moderate exercise, in fact, protects the heart in people with type 2 diabetes, even if they have no risk factors for heart disease other than diabetes itself. Strength training, which increases muscle and reduces fat, may be particularly helpful for people with diabetes, but evidence is needed to confirm this. One study reported that yoga helped patients with type 2 diabetes reduce their need for oral medications.

Some Precautions for People With Diabetes Who Exercise

The following are precautions for all people with diabetes, whether type 1 or 2:

Continue reading →

Diabetes Causes,Symptoms and Treatment

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What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a life-long disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood

Causes and Risk Factors of Diabetes:

Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar), resistance to insulin, or both.The lack of insulin results in an inability to metabolize glucose, and the capacity to store glycogen (a form of glucose) in the liver and the active transport of glucose across cell membranes are impaired.

There are two distinct types of diabetes.

  1. Insulin-dependent
  2. Non Insulin-dependent

Insulin-dependent Diabetes

Insulin-dependent diabetes (Type I), also called juvenile-onset diabetes, is the more serious form of the disease; about 10% of diabetics have this form.

Causes of Insulin-dependent Diabetes:

It is caused by destruction of pancreatic cells that make insulin and usually develops before age 30. Type I diabetics have a genetic predisposition to the disease. There is some evidence that it is triggered by a virus that changes the pancreatic cells in a way that prompts the immune system to attack them.

Symptoms of Insulin-dependent Diabetes:

  • Increased thirst
  • Increased urination
  • Weight loss in spite of increased appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Patients with type Insulin-dependent Diabetes usually develop symptoms over a short period of time, and the condition is often diagnosed in an emergency setting.

Treatment of Insulin-dependent Diabetes:

Treatment includes a diet limited in carbohydrates and saturated fat, exercise to burn glucose, and regular insulin injections, sometimes administered via a portable insulin pump. Transplantation of islet cells has also proved somewhat successful since 1999, after new transplant procedures were developed,
but the number of pancreases available for extraction of the islet cells is far smaller than the number of Type I diabetics. Patients receiving a transplant must take immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection of the cells, and many ultimately need to resume insulin injections, but despite that transplants
provide real benefits for some whose diabetes has become difficult to control.

Non Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

No insulin-dependent diabetes (Type 2), also called adult-onset diabetes, results from the inability of the cells in the body to respond to insulin. About 90% of diabetics have this form, which is more prevalent in minorities and usually occurs after age 40.

Causes of Non Insulin-Dependent Diabetes:

Although the cause is not completely understood, there is a genetic factor and 90% of those affected are obese.

Symptoms of type insulin-dependent diabetes:

  • Increased thirst
  • Increased urination
  • Increased appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Patients with insulin-dependent diabetes usually develop symptoms over a short period of time, and the condition is often diagnosed in an emergency setting.

Treatment of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes:

As in Type I diabetes, treatment includes exercise and weight loss and a diet low in total carbohydrates and saturated fat. Some individuals require insulin injections; many rely on oral drugs, such as sulphonylureas, metformin, acarbose, or a dipeptidyl peptidase–IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor.

Signs and Tests For Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

A urine analysis may be used to look for glucose and ketones from the breakdown of fat. However, a urine test alone does not diagnose diabetes. The following blood glucose tests are used to diagnose diabetes :-

Fasting blood glucose level — diabetes is diagnosed if higher than 126 mg/dL on two occasions. Levels between 100 and 126 mg/dl are referred to as impaired fasting glucose or pre-diabetes. These levels are considered to be risk factors for type 2 diabetes and its complications.
Random (non-fasting) blood glucose level — diabetes is suspected if higher than 200 mg/dL and accompanied by the classic symptoms of increased thirst, urination, and fatigue. (This test must be confirmed with a fasting blood glucose test.)
Oral glucose tolerance test — diabetes is diagnosed if glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dL after 2 hours (This test is used more for type 2 diabetes.) You should also ask your doctor how often to you need your hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level checked. The HbA1c is a measure of average blood glucose during
the previous 2 to 3 months. It is a very helpful way to determine how well treatment is working.

Ketone testing is another test that is used in type 1 diabetes. Ketones are produced by the breakdown of fat and muscle, and they are harmful at high levels. The ketone test is done using a urine sample. High levels of blood ketones may result in a serious condition called Treatment.

Self-Testing For Diabetes

If you have diabetes, your doctor may tell you to regularly check your blood sugar levels at home. There are a number of devices available, and they use only a drop of blood. Self-monitoring tells you how well diet, medication, and exercise are working together to control your diabetes and can help your doctor
prevent complications.

Blood Pressure, Symptoms and Causes

images3.jpg The high blood pressure or hypertension may be divided into three types:

Mild Hypertension,
Moderate Hypertension and
Severe Hypertension.

The values are given below.

Systolic Blood Pressure Diastolic Blood Pressure Condition

140-160 90-100 Mild Hypertension
160-200 100-120 Moderate Hypertension
Above 200 Above 120 Severe Hypertension

If you have high blood pressure, then your heart exerts more force to pump the same quantity of blood within the same time. This puts you at the risk of developing narrowed arteries, which can lead to heart problems, kidney disease, stroke, congestive heart failure and blindness. Note that heart disease and stroke are the first- and third-leading causes of death America. Continue reading →

Dengue is Back

Dengue’s Symptoms & Prevention

Dengue surfaced around 200 years ago and remains a serious health hazard, with often fatal consequences. Closer to home it made its first appearance in October last year and hung around until March 2007 and due to inadequate fumigation campaigns and lack of hygiene maintenance has re-emerged six months later, much stronger than before.
In such circumstances it is best to understand the nature of this dangerous disease. Dengue is caused by the Flavivirus, which is transmitted by the daytime biting mosquito. Aedes Aegypti.
The different varieties of the dengue virus all cause a similar illness. It takes between two to seven days for the disease to present itself after the mosquito bite. The disease can take one of these forms: Dengue Fever (DF).Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) or Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS).All three occur in South Asia as well as South-East Asia.
Dengue Symptoms
Dengue Prevention
Continue reading →